Organizational Culture and Technology

Ali Askari- ara090020@utdallas.edu
Olia Bosivik - oxb102020@utdallas.edu
Kristen Carlstrom - klc086000@utdallas.edu
Stefan Geier - GeierStefan@gmail.com 972-533-2585
Jonathon Green - jlg077000@utdallas.edu 214-240-9790
Gregg Farlow - gafarlow@yahoo.com 214-773-4133

I. Introduction to Organizational Culture & Technology (Jonathon)

A. Definition/Introduction to Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture can be defined as "the personality of an organization, reflecting the artifacts, values, assumptions , and norms of people within the organization as well as their behaviors." [1] An organization's culture consists of current and past experiences, assumptions, values, and the philosophy which defines who the organization is and how people within the company interact with each other and outside stakeholders. As the graph below states, the culture of an organization is "visible in the way that works gets done on a day-to-day basis," which explains how the cultures of multiple organizations can differ so greatly. The culture of a organization plays a large role in motivating employees to put in the extra effort to not only get their work completed in the most productive way possible but also to better the company in the long-run. Companies such as Google display great culture and this has resulted in one of the most profitable internet sites and a very low turnover rate for their employees. The first step to determining the sucess of a company relies heavily on the level of collaboration amongst the individuals involved with the organization so it's very important to examine their culture.

OC.jpg Understanding-Organizational-Culture.jpg

B. Examples/Characteristics

  • Artifacts and Behavior
    • The physical and observable level of organizational culture that exists within in organization. [2]
    • These may include such things as the dress code set by upper management, the type of technology utilized, and how the work spaces are set up.
    • Artifacts and Behavior may be difficult to interpret for it may represent what an organization is actually doing but does not go into the details of explaining why they are doing this.
  • Values
    • Values determine the behavior of the organization.
    • They are the principles that the organization uses to act in an ethical manner.
  • Assumptions and Beliefs
    • Assumptions and Beliefs are considered the unseen elements of organizational culture as well as the driving force behind the creation of an organization's culture.

C. Definition/Introduction to Technology

Technology is defined as the use of knowledge, tools, techniques, machines, and systems within an organization used to accomplish a task or in the decision making process. [3] The use of technology within an organization is important to their culture in that it allows members to successfully communicate and collaborate with others inside and outside of the company.

Video of how a few organizations are utilizing technology: [4]




II. How Technology Aids the Creation and Transmission of Culture (Jonathon)

A. How technology plays a role in developing Organizational Culture

Technology plays a vital role in the creation of an organization's culture in that it allows members of the organization to utilize recent advancements in technology to more effectively communicate and complete tasks in a much more efficient manner than in recent years. An organization that displays good culture is more inclined to better handle changes in technology being used within that company. This is based on the fact that with the introduction of new technologies and systems in an organization comes the need for a good training program to get employees confortable with these changes. Corporation's that display good culture have the leadership required to implement these training programs in a timely and organized manner, making sure that all levels of the organization have the knowledge and skill level to deal with problems that may arise within the system.

B. Examples of specific technological advancements

  • Office productivity and communication software: Making sure that productivity and communication software such as email, presentation software, and word processing applications are easily accessible to all employees within the organization aids in the transmission of culture. Not only does it help members of the organization to easily collaborate amongst each other, it also gives these people the access to important documents and information vital to the operation of the company.
  • Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (SAP/Oracle): ERP systems plays a very important part in organizational culture in that they integrate information internally and externally across the entire organization. Facilitating information flow within the organization allows accounting/finance, the sales department, and customer relations to be connected in an automated fashion which speeds up the entire business process and helps to create a positive culture.

D. How manager's use technology to maintain good culture in the corporation

Due to the fact that manager's are responsible for the creation and transmission of an organization's culture it's very important that they utilize technology in the most efficient manner possible during this process. Since the culture of an organization is highly determinant on the leadership abilities and behaviors of managers, it is very important for them to keep their company's technology updated and to utilize communication software to maintain a good relationship with employees. Also, because the culture of one organization differs from that of another, it is important that managers entering into a new work environment adapt to the culture that has previously been established rather than trying to completely change it to their standards. By staying current with the latest technological innovations managers will find that creating and maintaining culture becomes easier. Prior to the invention of the internet and computer software, the culture of an organization relied on how well managers and employees communicated in a face-to-face environment. In modern times, technology innovations such as video conferencing allows these same managers and employees to collaborate in a much quicker and productive fashion because you cut the time required to set up the face-to-face meeting. Business models can be created and shared within minutes using the video conferencing software, cutting lead times associated with putting the model into action. Technology has become and will continue to become one of the greatest resources a manager can use to establish and maintain the culture of his/her organization. By implementing technology in the workplace, managers will find it much easier to "manage, motivate, and inspire" their employees as the video below explains. [5]























III. How Organizational Culture Aids In The Adoption of New Technology (Kristen)

A. From a Organization and National StandpointA crucial influence on the success or failure of transferring new technologies into organizations is culture. It is defined as “the integrated pattern of behavior that includes thought, speech, action, and artifacts, and it depends on man’s capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.” This system of shared values and assumptions is critical to any firm’s activity. It represents a core set of values governing the employees’ approaches to the introduction of something new, and their attitudes toward change. There have been worldwide studies attesting to the importance of how culture affects the adoption of new technologies into organizations. These studies have proved that culture dominates how organizations function, how employees interact, and how decisions are made. Geert Hofstede, a man whose work has become the most widely cited theory in culture and organizational culture, argues that culture is the single most important factor accounting for success or failure in organizations.
National patterns in the core values and beliefs of individuals, which are formed during childhood and reinforced throughout life, is known as national culture. Each nation has its own identity, which includes its history, language, set of religious beliefs, and its own independent effect to a nation’s response to world events. These experiences influence how all the members of the nation view themselves and the others in this world.
external image TA-model.jpgThe model above shows the average distribution of technology adoption in any given population of people. This is an average of technology acceptance, with no cultural variables added in.
cm.pngIn contrast with the first model, this is a conceptual model of the implementation of new technologies with the added variables of culture. It also corresponds with the Diffusion of Innovations Theory.

B. Diffusion of Innovations Theory
Everett Rogers said that “diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. Diffusion is a special type of communication concerned with the spread of messages that are perceived as new idea.” [6]
There are four main elements in the diffusion of new ideas.
  1. First and foremost, the innovation itself. Why do certain innovations spread faster than others? The rate of adoption is determined by relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trial-ability, and observability to those within the social system.
  2. Communication is a larger part of the adoption process; it is achieved when two or more people create and share information with one another. A communication channel is a means to do this. While mass media channels are better for informing people of innovations, interpersonal channels have a way of forming and changing attitudes when it comes to a new idea. This in turn influences whether to adopt or reject new technology. Most people do not make a decision based on what the facts have provided for you, but by how their peers have adopted this innovation.
  3. Time also plays a large role when it comes to the innovation decision process, the innovativeness of a single individual, and the rate of adoption.
  4. Lastly is the social system, a “set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal,” (Rogers). It determines the boundary for a diffusion process; it can be affected by norms, and the degree to which the individuals can influence one another.


IV. Organizational Culture's Role in Technology (Olia)

Dimensions of Organizational Culture Profile

external image bauer-fig15_004.jpg
The most technology-receptive cultures from this model would be:
1) INNOVATIVE CULTURE- that is flexible and adaptable and is open to new ideas.
According to a survey done by PWC the most innovative companied share these common characteristics:

  • Higher degree of management trust

  • More active flow of ideas
  • Fewer organizational levels between executives and the customer
  • Explicit idea management process that people adhere there
  • Recruit challenging managers
  • Have managers who delegate decision making
  • Have managers who involve others in developing ideas into actions
  • Routinely envision the future based on an intimate market knowledge
  • Do not rely on the board alone for significant new ideas
  • Take a balanced view of risk-taking behaviors.
[7]
The companies with innovative cultures have no problem with adapting and implementing new technologies in their workplace, some of which are discussed below.
2)AGGRESIVE CULTURE - those companies value competivness and outperforming competitors. Since being the first and the best is one of the most important priorities to companies with aggressive culture they are very quick and efficient when it comes to implementing New Technologies. The aggressively driven company is aggressive when it comes to implementing new technology that provides a competitive edge. The competitive edge may be related to overall system performance that empowers employees to become more productive.

3) OUTCOME ORIENTED Cultures are also going to be more likely to implement new innovative tchnologies and ideas, since they emphasize on achievement,results, and action. Those companies would spent time and resources in order to train their employees how to effictively and efficiently use the technology in order to achieve desired outcomes.

4) DETAIL ORIENTED CULTURES** Companies , especially the ones working in the Hospitality business would definitely benefit from constantly changing and updating their technology systems. Like the Four Seasons Hotels Lts. and RItz Carlton LLC that keep records of all customer requests, like newspaper that a guest might prefer or what type of pilloes they like. ALl that information is stored in a computer system and is used to provide a better service to top clients in the future. For companies like Four Seasons, it is crucial to have the most updated and recent technology in order to better serve their clients and fulfill their needs.
[8]


A.New Technologies developed for the Workplace


[9]
New technologies have allowed employees in many different companies stay connected and cooperate without being tied to the office any longer. The offices are now "mobile" for many people, the can go wherever the employee goes. Cellular phones allow us to be reached almost anywhere on the planet. Iphone and other smartphones provide access to email and other data products almost anywhere in the world.
INNOVATIVE,AGGRESSIVE,OUTCOME-ORIENTED cultures would most likely not have a problem implementing this type of work. On the other hand companies with STABLE, PEOPLE-ORIENTED and some TEAM-ORIENTED cultures may have a difficult time adapting to the changes in the workokace since they are either reluctant to change, or do not want to break up the team spirit,

NEW TECHNOLOGY TOOLS
Cell phones are by far the most popular device among American adults, especially for adults under the age of 65. Some 85% of adults own cell phones overall. Taking pictures (done by 76% of cell owners) and text messaging (done by 72% of cell owners) are the two non-voice functions that are widely popular among all cell phone users.
Desktop computers are most popular with adults ages 35-65, with 69% of Gen X, 65% of Younger Boomers and 64% of Older Boomers owning these devices.
  • Millennials are the only generation that is more likely to own a laptop computer or netbook than a desktop: 70% own a laptop, compared with 57% who own a desktop.
Today. the question is: " How do we improve our " smart" cell phones, that are a significant part of our work invrionment?"
One of the newest products created to assist people that use their mobile device or tablet for work was introduced at this year's CES 21012 preview in New York:
A STYLUS for a smartphone of Tablet that makes working a much more comfortable experience, by avoiding the pecking at the mobile phone's or tablet's touchscreen is one of the many examples of how our "Mobile" workplace is constantly improving. Some of the benefits include: fewer fingerprints or smudges on the screen; in cold weather, there is no need to take off the gloves to use a phone; and some styluses are designed to glide better on the screen.
Most all cultures that are striving to be advanced in the competitve world would benefit from having tools like the stylus in their all so mobile working environment.[10]
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B Effects on Employees and Corporate Culture


image%20(1).jpg
About 91 % of organizations today allow their employees to work from home occasionally. As videoconferencing and telecommunicating becomes more and more popular, employers and employees are realizing the benefits of mobile workplace:
  • Productivity gains
  • Reduced absenteism
  • Reduced employee Turnover Costs
  • Reduced Real Estate Costs
  • Reduced Relocation Costs
[11]

C. How the Technologies should be implemented


"Technology is dominated by two types of people: those who understand what they do not manage, and those who manage what they do not understand."
With all the great benefits of New Technologies and increase in Productivity and Cost Reduction , implementation of the trechnologies should be done with extreme care and specific areas of concer need to be addressed:

image.jpg
[12]
IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS:
1) FIT. It is important for Managers to make sure that technologies that are being implemented fit the organization, specifically business and competitive strategies,objectives, and measures of success. This will make sure that the technology being implemented is alligned with the business needs.( Detail-Oriented Culture Companies would be very sesitive to this part of the implementation process since, it is really important for them to make sure that every aspect is thouroghly conisdered)

2) Change resistance.Some employees may be resistant to change by nature. They may be too busy doing things that they have been doing on a daily basis to take the time to learn how new technology might save time.
(Companies with Stable cultures would be most likely resistant to chage.)

3)It is helpful in some cases to create a seperate VISION STATEMENT, that defines the role of the new technology and how it will support the organization's overall vision.
(Outcome Oriented culture companies as well as others would benefit fromd doing the vision statement)

4)Defining OBJECTIVES will clarify the specifics of the vision, and will help employees understand how the new technology will benefit the business objectives. “The best thing to do is to introduce the problem to employees and present the software to them as a possible solution,” according to Henry Levenstein, vice president of sales and marketing for Supply King.
(Doing this will also be helpful in companies where employees are less likely to be willing to change, like Stable culture Companies.
People-Oriented culture companies which value PEOPLE above all else, would most likely want to explain throroughly to their employees, in order to make sure that everyone is on the same page.)

5) EXPENSES AND BUDGET. It is beneficial to clarify how expenses will be covered and sources of funding will be used.
For example, which expenses are part of the overall technology purchases and which expenses would be part of a separate budget created only for financing technology products.
(Most every company cares about their finances, regardless to their culture, but not all will want to clarify. Aggressive,Innovative and Outcome-Oriented cultures are less likely to spend time explaining their budget, where as Stable, People-Oriented,Detail-Oriented would probably take the time to explain to their employees the financial aspects of the new technologies being implemented.)

6) Training, Training, Training. Most companies don’t provide enough training, which is critical and has to be an ongoing process.
Although software manufacturers are a useful source of initial training, it’s not just external training from software manufacturers that will help employees uerstand the use of new technology. A core group of internal employees within the organization that can champion the new system and help other employees use it is essential.
(Every Company and every culture should invest time and money into training their staff on the new technologies being implemented regardless of their CULTURE)
[13]





V. How The Introduction of New Technologies Change Culture (Ali)

A. Re-developing Culture

The introduction of new technologies has forced organizations to redevelop their way of living, thinking, and interacting with others. Technology has required organizations to change their culture and build around new technology. Advances in mobile computing, the Internet, cloud computing, communication, and the integration of these technologies into a single device have all forced organizations to change.

Effects of new technologies result in the formation of new norms in an organization, such as an increased use of social networking sites in the workplace or a decreased need to physically travel around the world with the advent of video conferencing. [14]

New technologies also have an affect on the values of an organization in the sense that a much greater emphasis is put on new technology. Due to the high cost of implementing new technologies, organizations are forced to place technology as the company’s most important asset, sometimes at the expense of people.

In addition to values, new technology also has a profound effect on an organization’s artifacts and behaviors, which are the physical and observable characteristics of an organization. Examples of this include reduced verbal communication (telephone, face-to-face) due to an increased use of e-mail, instant messaging, and text messaging. [15]

In regards to the three levels of organizational culture (assumptions, values, artifacts), new technology has a "chain reaction" effect on all three components. A common assumption of organizations is that happy and satisfied employees create benefits for the company and improve productivity. This assumption leads to values such as efficient communication, narrowing the gap between humans and technology, and simplifying work. Artifacts reflecting these values include new, up-and-coming technologies such as videoconferencing, cloud computing, and smartphones.
Cisco's TelePresence Videoconferencing System. New technologies like this play a pivotal role in redefining an organization's culture.
Cisco's TelePresence Videoconferencing System. New technologies like this play a pivotal role in redefining an organization's culture.
[16]





B. What corporations should do to manage changing technology demandsIn an increasingly competitive corporate world, managing changes in technology are vital to a company’s success because it ensures an organization’s competitiveness in the business world. Acknowledging the fact that technology turnover occurs very frequently and embracing new technologies are important first steps in being able to manage changing technology demands.





An appropriate asset recovery program is crucial to managing changes in technology because it allows corporations to recover losses while staying on the cutting edge of technology. Asset recovery is being able to get the most for assets that have become obsolete.[17] For example, a company may invest several thousands of dollars in upgrading company mobile phones for all employees. A few years down the road, the mobile phones become obsolete due to the availability of newer smartphones with useful features the company needs. Instead of disposing of the old phones or keeping them in storage, the corporation can sell off its older phones at a discounted price. This way, the company still ends up with a portion of the initial value recovered. The money that’s received for the old phones can then be used to reinvest in newer technologies, providing a smart and sustainable program that facilitates the management of changing technology.





Working in collaboration with an Information Technology (IT) or technology management solutions company is another important strategy needed to properly manage changing technology demands. These companies are responsible for creating flexible computing infrastructure that can easily be adjusted for future growth. [18] Whether the technology demand is a greater need for memory to store a corporation’s expanding database or an overhaul of company laptops, IT solutions companies can prepare a corporation for the quickly changing future of technology. Putting the management of changing technology demands in the hands of IT companies that specialize in preparing corporations for the next step in technology facilitates the management process.





The Asset Recovery Cycle
The Asset Recovery Cycle
[19]






C. Specific examples of new technologies and their effect


  • Videoconferencing
    This technology allows organizations to communicate with others around the world through video and voice at the same time. Videoconferencing allows organizations to communicate in real-time and simulates a real face-to-face business meeting.[20]

    This technology has a colossal effect on organizations because it eliminates the need for travel. It saves companies thousands in travel costs annually and allows organizations to collaborate on projects faster and more efficiently. Because of advancements in bandwidth and the Internet, this technology is being widely adapted due to its increasing practicality. Widely-used videoconferencing systems include Cisco Systems’ TelePresence and Teliris’ VirtuaLive.


  • Cloud Computing
    Cloud computing is the ability to access your information from anywhere rather than having it anchored to a computer. [21] The word “cloud” comes from the fact that cloud computing is likened to a power grid that hovers over a city. One’s documents and other files can be stored into this “power grid”. Since the information isn’t stored on a computer or a phone, it’s considered up in the air- like a cloud.
    This new, up-and-coming technology is currently considered the future of computing.

    Its effect on organizations is profound because it allows employees to work from anywhere, which increases efficiency for a company. Cloud computing also cuts costs for a company because it eliminates the need to spend money on servers, instead paying a lesser amount to buy “cloud real estate”. Another effect that cloud computing has is that because of its configuration, changing and upgrading software is a much quicker and easier process. The most prominent cloud service providers are Amazon Web Services, Microsoft’s Windows Azure, and Apple’s iCloud. [22] Below is a video explaining cloud computing in greater detail and below that is a diagram of cloud computing.

    Cloud computing is the ability to access your information from anywhere rather than having it anchored to a computer. [23] The word “cloud” comes from the fact that cloud computing is likened to a power grid that hovers over a city. One’s documents and other files can be stored into this “power grid”. Since the information isn’t stored on a computer or a phone, it’s considered up in the air- like a cloud.
    This new, up-and-coming technology is currently considered the future of computing.

    Its effect on organizations is profound because it allows employees to work from anywhere, which increases efficiency for a company. Cloud computing also cuts costs for a company because it eliminates the need to spend money on servers, instead paying a lesser amount to buy “cloud real estate”. Another effect that cloud computing has is that because of its configuration, changing and upgrading software is a much quicker and easier process. The most prominent cloud service providers are Amazon Web Services, Microsoft’s Windows Azure, and Apple’s iCloud. [24] Below is a video explaining cloud computing in greater detail and below that is a diagram of cloud computing.











[25]


Cloud Computing Diagram
Cloud Computing Diagram
[26]

  • Smartphones
    A smartphone is a mobile device that combines features found on a typical computer, such as real web browsing and e-mail, with a mobile phone. [27] With smartphones, users can integrate just about all their information and take it with them wherever they go. Smartphones are now able to integrate new technologies such as the two mentioned earlier: videoconferencing and cloud computing. Cloud computing is especially useful with smartphones because anything downloaded or added to a smartphone can automatically be synced with multiple devices such as computers, tablets, and servers through the cloud. The widespread availability of third party applications are useful because companies can control orders, customer profiles, inventory, schedules, and much more. These applications serve as tools to help accentuate a business therefore prove to be a valuable and relatively inexpensive asset to any company. This greatly simplifies the business process for organizations because everything is integrated in an all-in-one portable profile that employees can take anywhere.

    Smartphones affect organizations in the sense that they allow for quick and seamless integration of vital features such as e-mail, video calling, web browsing, GPS, company schedules and calendar, company applications, cloud computing, and third party applications. This makes communication and business operations more efficient and simplified. Examples of smartphones are Apple’s iPhone, Blackberry phones, and Android-based smartphones.
Smartphones. (Left: iPhone 3G, Middle: Android based G1, Right: Blackberry Bold)
Smartphones. (Left: iPhone 3G, Middle: Android based G1, Right: Blackberry Bold)
[28]


VI. Technology's Impact on Corporate Culture (Stefan)


A. Corporate Culture


Corporate culture has a great impact on shaping the way business is conducted internally and externally in an organization. It emphasizes how co-workers not only interact with one another, but how they reach out to their customers. In order for a corporation for a corporation to be distinct from their rivals, individual employees have to understand how to behave in an organization through two important terms:
1. Shared vales amongst each member allows everyone to understand what is important to their business culture.
2. Norms of behavior begin to form from shared values, defining how its members interact with one another through decision making and problem solving. [29]
Starting all the way from the top CEO, down to the janitors that work in that organization, everyone has an important role by; underlining the companies' values and goals allows everyone to have responsibility and duty to uphold proudly.

B. MIS



Management Information Systems (MIS) exist to help organizations achieve their goals and objectives. This is determined by its competitive strategy, which includes the structure, features, and functions of every information system. In order for all this to happen, it all breaks down to how effectively and efficiently members of an organization communicate to one one another.


SAP_logo.jpg
“SAP helps companies of all sizes and industries run better. From back office to boardroom, warehouse to storefront, desktop to mobile device, SAP empowers people and organizations to work together more efficiently and use business insight more effectively to stay ahead of the competition. We do this by extending the availability of software across on-premise installations, on-demand deployments, and mobile devices.” [30]
.
Oracle_logo.jpg
“Oracle delivers the best applications-to-disk environment by integrating its software, server, storage, and networking technologies to deliver some of the most scalable, reliable, and secure products available today. With the full software and hardware portfolio at its disposal, only Oracle designs and integrates everything from the semiconductor chip to the entire software stack to achieve performance levels that are unmatched in the industry" [31]

C. How Corporate Culture ties in a Business Process of MIS

There are 5 important functions in a business process [32] that determine the outcome of a well oriented culture:
1. Inbound logistics - receiving the vendor's material. 2. Operations/Manufacturing - transforming material to final product.3. Outbound logistics - physically collecting and storing materials to buyer.4. Sales and Marketing - inducing buyers to purchase the product and providing means for them to do so.5. Customer Service - assisting customer's use of the product and enhancing product value.




business_process_71.jpg



D. An Example Use of Business Process: eCommerce


During the dot-com uprising from 1999-2000 [33] , e-commerce emerged and began its own economy by cutting the middle man from its duties and directly purchasing from the manufacturer's finished goods inventory. Not only are the distributor's and retailer's inventory carrying costs eliminated, which is called disintermediation, but the market runs efficiently and customers unnecessary costs are cut back.






VII. Conclusion (Gregg)

A. Condensed Overview


I. Introduction to Organizational Culture & Technology

A. Definition and Introduction to Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture can be defined as "the personality of an organization, reflecting the artifacts, values, assumptions, and norms of people within the organization as well as their behaviors." An organization's culture consists of current and past experiences, assumptions, values, and the philosophy which defines who the organization is and how people within the company interact with each other and outside stakeholders. The first step to determining the success of a company relies heavily on the level of collaboration amongst the individuals involved with the organization so it's very important to examine their culture.

B. Examples/Characteristics


  • Artifacts and Behavior - The physical and observable level of organizational culture that exists within an organization.
  • Values - They are the principles that the organization uses to act in an ethical manner.
  • Assumptions and Beliefs - Assumptions and Beliefs are considered the unseen elements of organizational culture as well as the driving force behind the creation of an organization's culture.

C. Definition/Introduction to Technology

Technology is defined as the use of knowledge, tools, techniques, machines, and systems within an organization used to accomplish a task or in the decision making process. The use of technology within an organization is important to their culture in that it allows members to successfully communicate and collaborate with others inside and outside of the company.

II. How Technology Aids the Creation and Transmission of Culture


  1. How technology plays a role in developing Organizational Culture

Technology plays a vital role in the creation of an organization's culture in that it allows members of the organization to utilize recent advancements in technology to more effectively communicate and complete tasks in a much more efficient manner than in recent years. Corporation's that display good culture have the leadership required to implement these training programs in a timely and organized manner, making sure that all levels of the organization have the knowledge and skill level to deal with problems that may arise within the system.

B. Examples of specific technological advancements


  • Office productivity and communication software: Making sure that productivity and communication software such as email, presentation software, and word processing applications are easily accessible to all employees within the organization aids in the transmission of culture.
  • Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (SAP/Oracle): ERP systems play an important role in an organizational culture because they integrate information internally and externally across the entire organization. Facilitating information flow within the organization allows accounting/finance, the sales department, and customer relations to be connected in an automated fashion which speeds up the entire business process and helps to create an efficient and positive culture.

D. How manager's use technology to maintain good culture in the corporation

Due to the fact that managers are responsible for the creation and transmission of an organization's culture it's important that they utilize technology in the most efficient manner during this process. Since the culture of an organization is determined on the leadership abilities and behaviors of managers, it is very important for them to keep their company's technology updated and to utilize communication software to maintain a healthy relationship with employees. Prior to the invention of the internet and computer software, the culture of an organization relied on how well managers and employees communicated in a face-to-face environment. In modern times, technology innovations such as video conferencing allows these same managers and employees to collaborate in a much quicker and productive fashion because you cut the time required to set up the face-to-face meeting. Business models can be created and shared within minutes using the video conferencing software, cutting lead times associated with putting the model into action. Technology has become and will continue to become one of the greatest resources a manager can use to establish and maintain the culture of an organization.

III. How Organizational Culture Aids In The Adoption of New Technology


  1. From a Organization and National Standpoint
An important influence on the success or failure of transferring new technologies into organizations is culture. This system of shared values and assumptions is critical to any firm’s activity. It represents a core set of values governing the employees’ approaches to the introduction of something new, and their attitudes toward change.

National patterns in the core values and beliefs of individuals, which are formed during childhood and reinforced throughout life, is known as national culture. Each nation has its own identity, which includes its history, language, set of religious beliefs, and its own independent effect to a nation’s response to world events. These experiences influence how all the members of the nation view themselves and the others in this world.

B. Diffusion of Innovations Theory

Everett Rogers said that “diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. Diffusion is a special type of communication concerned with the spread of messages that are perceived as new idea.”

There are four main elements in the diffusion of new ideas.


  1. Innovation itself. Why do certain innovations spread faster than others? The rate of adoption is determined by relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trial-ability, and observability to those within the social system.
  2. Communication is a larger part of the adoption process. It is achieved when two or more people create and share information with one another.
  3. Time also plays a large role when it comes to the innovation decision process, the innovativeness of a single individual, and the rate of adoption.
  4. The social system, a “set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal,” (Rogers). It determines the boundary for a diffusion process; it can be affected by norms, and the degree to which the individuals can influence one another.

IV. Organizational Culture's Role in Technology

Dimensions of Organizational Culture Profile

The most technology-receptive cultures from this model would be:

1) Innovative Culture - that is flexible and adaptable and is open to new ideas.

According to a survey done by PWC the most innovative companies share these common characteristics:


  • Higher degree of management trust
  • More active flow of ideas
  • Recruit challenging managers
  • Have managers who delegate decision making
  • Have managers who involve others in developing ideas into actions
  • Take a balanced view of risk-taking behaviors.

The companies with innovative cultures have no problem with adapting and implementing new technologies in their workplace, some of which are discussed below.

2) Aggressive Culture - those companies value competiveness and outperforming competitors. Since being the first and the best is one of the most important priorities to companies with aggressive culture they are very quick and efficient when it comes to implementing New Technologies.

3) Outcome Oriented Cultures are also going to be more likely to implement new innovative technologies and ideas, since they emphasize on achievement, results, and action.

4) Detailed Oriented Cultures – Companies such as those working in the hospitality business would most likely benefit by regularly updating their technology systems (the Four Seasons Hotels Lts, RItz Carlton LLC that keep records of all customer requests, like newspaper that a guest might prefer or what type of pillows they like). ALl that information is stored in a computer system and is used to provide a better service to top clients in the future. For companies such as the Four Seasons, it is crucial to have the most updated and recent technology in order to better serve their clients and handle their needs.

A. New Technologies developed for the Workplace

New technologies have allowed employees in many different companies stay connected and cooperate without being tied to the office any longer. The offices are now "mobile" for many people, the can go wherever the employee goes. Cellular phones allow us to be reached almost anywhere on the planet. I-phone and other Smartphone provide access to email and other data products almost anywhere in the world.

Innovative, aggressive, outcome-oriented cultures would most likely not have a problem implementing this type of work. On the other hand, companies with stable, people-oriented, and team-oriented cultures may have a difficult time adapting to the changes in the work place since they are either reluctant to change, or do not want to break up the team spirit.

New Technology Tools

Cell phones are by far the most popular device among American adults, especially for adults under the age of 65. Some 85% of adults own cell phones overall. Taking pictures (done by 76% of cell owners) and text messaging (done by 72% of cell owners) are the two non-voice functions that are widely popular among all cell phone users.

Desktop computers are most popular with adults ages 35-65, with 69% of Gen X, 65% of Younger Boomers and 64% of Older Boomers owning these devices.


  • Millennials are the only generation that is more likely to own a laptop computer or notebook than a desktop: 70% own a laptop, compared with 57% who own a desktop.

Today, the question is, "How do we improve our "smart" cell phones that are a significant part of our work environment?"

One of the newest products created to assist people that use their mobile device or tablet for work was introduced at this year's CES 21012 previews in New York:

A STYLUS for a Smartphone of Tablet that makes working a much more comfortable experience, by avoiding the pecking at the mobile phones or tablet's touch screen is one of the many examples of how our "Mobile" workplace is constantly improving. Some of the benefits include: fewer fingerprints or smudges on the screen; in cold weather, there is no need to take off the gloves to use a phone; and some styluses are designed to glide better on the screen.

B. Effects on Employees and Corporate Culture

About 91 % of organizations today allow their employees to work from home occasionally. As videoconferencing and telecommunicating becomes more and more popular, employers and employees are realizing the benefits of mobile workplace:


  • Productivity gains
  • Reduced absenteeism
  • Reduced employee Turnover Costs
  • Reduced Real Estate Costs
  • Reduced Relocation Costs

C. How the Technologies should be implemented

With all the great benefits of New Technologies and increase in Productivity and Cost Reduction, implementation of the technologies should be done with extreme care and specific areas of concern need to be addressed:

Implementation process

1) FIT. It is important for Managers to make sure that technologies that are being implemented fit the organization, specifically business and competitive strategies, objectives, and measures of success.

2) Change resistance. Some employees may be resistant to change by nature. They may be too busy doing things that they have been doing on a daily basis to take the time to learn how new technology might save time.
3) It is helpful in some cases to create a separate ‘vision statement’ that defines the role of the new technology and how it will support the organization's overall vision.
4) Defining Objectives will clarify the specifics of the vision and will help employees understand how the new technology will benefit the business objectives.
5) Expenses and budget - It is beneficial to clarify how expenses will be covered and sources of funding will be used. For example, which expenses are parts of the overall technology purchases and which expenses would be part of a separate budget created only for financing technology products.
6) Training, Training, Training. Most companies don’t provide enough training. Although software manufacturers are a useful source of initial training, it’s not just external training from software manufacturers that will help employees understand the use of new technology.


V. How The Introduction of New Technologies Change Culture

A. Re-developing Culture

The introduction of new technologies has forced organizations to redevelop their way of living, thinking, and interacting with others. Technology has required organizations to change their culture and build around new technology. Advances in mobile computing, the Internet, cloud computing, communication, and the integration of these technologies into a single device have all forced organizations to change.

Effects of new technologies result in the formation of new norms in an organization, such as an increased use of social networking sites in the workplace or a decreased need to physically travel around the world with the advent of video conferencing.

In addition to values, new technology also has a profound effect on an organization’s artifacts and behaviors, which are the physical and observable characteristics of an organization. Examples of this include reduced verbal communication (telephone, face-to-face) due to an increased use of e-mail, instant messaging, and text messaging.

B. What corporations should do to manage changing technology demands?

In an increasingly competitive corporate world, managing changes in technology are vital to a company’s success because it ensures an organization’s competitiveness in the business world. Acknowledging the fact that technology turnover occurs frequently and embracing new technologies are important first steps in being able to manage the demands of changing technology.

An appropriate asset recovery program is necessary in managing changes in technology because it allows corporations to recover losses while staying on the cutting edge of technology. Asset recovery is being able to get the most for assets that have become obsolete. For example, a company may invest several thousands of dollars in upgrading company mobile phones for all employees.

Working in collaboration with an Information Technology (IT) or technology management solutions company is another important strategy needed to properly manage changing technology demands. These companies are responsible for creating flexible computing infrastructure that can easily be adjusted for future growth.

C. Specific examples of new technologies and their effect


  • Videoconferencing - This type of technology allows organizations to communicate with others around the world through video and voice at the same time. Videoconferencing allows organizations to communicate in real-time and simulates a real face-to-face business meeting.
  • Cloud Computing - Cloud computing is the ability to access your information from anywhere rather than having it anchored to a computer. The word “cloud” comes from the fact that cloud computing is likened to a power grid that hovers over a city. Its effect on organizations is profound because it allows employees to work from anywhere, which increases efficiency for a company. Cloud computing also cuts costs for a company because it eliminates the need to spend money on servers, instead paying a lesser amount to buy “cloud real estate”.

  • Smart-phones A Smart-phone is a mobile device that combines features found on a typical computer, such as real web browsing and e-mail, with a mobile phone. With Smart-phones, users can integrate just about all their information and take it with them wherever they go. Smart-phones are now able to integrate new technologies such as the two mentioned earlier: videoconferencing and cloud computing. Cloud computing is especially useful with Smart-phones because anything downloaded or added to a Smartphone can automatically be synced with multiple devices such as computers, tablets, and servers through the cloud.

VI. Technology's Impact on Corporate Culture

A. Corporate Culture

Corporate culture has a great impact on shaping the way business is conducted internally and externally in an organization. It emphasizes how co-workers not only interact with one another, but how they reach out to their customers. In order for a corporation to be more distinct from their competitors, individual employees have to understand how to behave in an organization through two important terms:

1) Shared values amongst each member allow everyone to understand what is important to their business culture.
2) Norms of behavior begin to form from shared values, defining how its members interact with one another through decision making and problem solving.

B. MIS

Management Information Systems (MIS) exist to help organizations achieve their goals and objectives. This is determined by its competitive strategy, which includes the structure, features, and functions of every information system. In order for all this to happen, it all breaks down to how effectively and efficiently members of an organization communicate to one one another.



“SAP helps companies of all sizes and industries run better. From back office to boardroom, warehouse to storefront, desktop to mobile device, SAP empowers people and organizations to work together more efficiently and use business insight more effectively to stay ahead of the competition. We do this by extending the availability of software across on-premise installations, on-demand deployments, and mobile devices.”


“Oracle delivers the best applications-to-disk environment by integrating its software, server, storage, and networking technologies to deliver some of the most scalable, reliable, and secure products available today. With the full software and hardware portfolio at its disposal, only Oracle designs and integrates everything from the semiconductor chip to the entire software stack to achieve performance levels that are unmatched in the industry"

C. How Corporate Culture ties in a Business Process of MIS

There are 5 important functions in a business process that determine the outcome of a well oriented culture:

1) Inbound logistics - receiving the vendor's material.
2) Operations/Manufacturing - transforming material to final product.
3) Outbound logistics - physically collecting and storing materials to buyer.
4) Sales and Marketing - inducing buyers to purchase the product and providing means for them to do so.
5) Customer Service - assisting customer's use of the product and enhancing product value.

D. An Example Use of Business Process: e-Commerce

During the dot-com uprising from 1999-2000, e-commerce emerged and began its own economy by cutting the middle man from its duties and directly purchasing from the manufacturer's finished goods inventory. Not only are the distributor's and retailer's inventory carrying costs eliminated, which is called disintermediation, but the market runs efficiently and customers unnecessary costs are cut back.

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